Latest Wraparound Research
This page highlights recent Wraparound research. For a quick review of the research on Wraparound's effectiveness, see this 2017 summary of rigorous research, or for a more in-depth discussion, see the full-text comprehensive review of Wraparound research. For additional resources, access the NWI's resource library and browse "Wraparound overall > research and evaluation."
Examining Wraparound Fidelity for Youth with Mental Health Needs: An Illustrative Example of Two Rural Canadian Schools
Citation: Bartlett, N. A., & Freeze, T. B. (2019). Examining Wraparound Fidelity for Youth with Mental Health Needs: An Illustrative Example of Two Rural Canadian Schools. International Journal of Special Education, 33(4), 846-868.
Abstract: Addressing the mental health needs of children and youth is a priority. One way to operationalize the provision of support for children and youth with severe mental health needs is through the wraparound approach. Wraparound is a highly individualized person and family centred planning process which utilizes a clearly articulated practice model, and is led by trained wraparound facilitators. This research examined the fidelity of implementation of the wraparound approach for two youths with severe mental health needs in two rural schools in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Adherence to the guiding principles and primary activities of the wraparound approach were measured using the Wraparound Fidelity Index 4.0 (WFI-EZ), a self-report tool that was administered with caregivers, wraparound facilitators and team members. Facilitation skills and teamwork also were examined through the independent observation of wraparound planning meetings using the Team Observation Measure (TOM-2). These fidelity measures determine model adherence, which has been associated with improved behavioral outcomes for children and youth with severe mental health needs, and quality improvements in service provision. The findings of low average-to-average overall fidelity are encouraging given that these school-based settings are in the emergent stage of wraparound implementation, and demonstrate their ability of schools to adhere to many of the key elements of the wraparound approach. Areas of high fidelity and low fidelity are discussed, and recommendations for quality improvements in wraparound implementation in school-based settings are proposed.
Putting the Pieces Together: Perceptions of Longitudinal Wraparound, Systems of Care, and Positive Behavior Support Implementation
Citation: Matthews, K., Enyart, M., & Freeman, R. (2019). Putting the Pieces Together: Perceptions of Longitudinal Wraparound, Systems of Care, and Positive Behavior Support Implementation. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(6), 932-941.
Abstract: Positive Behavior Support (PBS) was introduced to community-based providers in Kansas in 2012 in response to a federally funded initiative to reduce the placement of youth in psychiatric facilities. As core project activities concluded in 2016, researchers investigated the impact of this comprehensive PBS initiative on youth, families, mental health centers, and other stakeholders. This paper describes how qualitative interviews and focus groups were used to investigate the perceptions of families, advocates, and implementers involved in wraparound (WA), regional interagency collaboration, and the addition of PBS services. Themes reflected the changes occurring over time in statewide WA implementation and how state funding for the PBS effort was used as part of regional interagency collaboration to continue supporting principles outlined in systems of care.
Randomized Control Trial Findings of a Wraparound Program for Dually Involved Youth
Citation: Coldiron, J. S., Hensley, S. W., Parigoris, R. M., & Bruns, E. J. (2019). Randomized Control Trial Findings of a Wraparound Program for Dually Involved Youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. [Online First.] Doi: 10.1177/1063426619861074
Abstract: Wraparound care coordination for youth with serious emotional and behavioral challenges has been implemented in every state and in many child-serving contexts, but evidence from rigorous effectiveness studies is scarce. We conducted a 20-month longitudinal randomized control trial of a pilot Wraparound program for youth in foster care and involved in the juvenile justice system (n = 24), comparing outcomes with youth receiving community “treatment as usual” (TAU; n = 23). Youth in both groups experienced significantly improved outcomes, including fewer arrests and greater residential stability. Wraparound youth were less likely to be rearrested (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.17, 2.04]), and survival analysis found they went longer before doing so than TAU youth. Wraparound youth were also more likely to be educationally on track than TAU youth by the end of the study (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = [1.89, 18.72]). Although these findings were nonsignificant at p < .05 due to small sample sizes, effect sizes were medium to large, and no such trends were found for the TAU group. Implications for Wraparound's implementation and effectiveness, as well as the strengths and limitations of conducting a randomized control trial in "real-world" systems, are discussed.
Interagency Collaborative Care for Young People with Complex Needs: Front‐line Staff Perspectives
Citation: Morgan, S., Pullon, S., & McKinlay, E. (2019). Interagency Collaborative Care for Young People with Complex Needs: Front‐line Staff Perspectives. Health & Social Care in the Community, 27(4), 1019–1030.
Abstract: Interagency collaboration and the “integration” of health and social care services are advocated to address the increasingly complex needs of at‐risk youth and to reduce barriers to accessing care. In New Zealand, Youth‐One‐Stop‐Shops (YOSSs) provide integrated health and social care to young people with complex needs. Little is known about how YOSSs facilitate collaborative care. This study explored the collaboration between YOSSs and external agencies between 2015 and 2017 using a multiple case study method. This paper reports qualitative focus group and individual interview data from two of four case sites including six YOSS staff and 14 external agency staff. Results showed participants regarded collaboration as critical to the successful care of high needs young people and were positive about working together.
Child and Family Team Meeting Characteristics and Outcomes in a Statewide System of Care
Citation: Schreier, A., Horwitz, M., Marshall, T., Bracey, J., Cummins, M., & Kaufman, J. S. (2019). Child and Family Team Meeting Characteristics and Outcomes in a Statewide System of Care. American Journal of Community Psychology, 63,(3/4), 487–498.
Abstract: Systems of care (SOC) have relied on the wraparound care process to individualize community‐based services for children and youth with serious emotional and behavioral difficulties. A core element of wraparound care is Child and Family Team meetings (CFTs), which are designed to give youth and families a leadership role in developing and guiding their plan of care. The National Wraparound Initiative (NWI) has identified Practice Standards regarding CFT implementation. This study examined CFT characteristics and the association between those characteristics and youth and family outcomes in a statewide SOC. Results indicated that a higher number of CFTs was associated with poorer outcomes, while a higher percentage of natural supports at meetings was associated with better youth outcomes. Number of days to the first CFT was associated with greater caregiver strain. Implications for CFT implementation within wraparound are discussed.
Falling Through the Cracks: How Service Gaps Leave Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Mental Health Difficulties Without the Care They Need
Citation: Ono, E., Friedlander, R., & Salih, T. (2019). Falling Through the Cracks: How Service Gaps Leave Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Mental Health Difficulties Without the Care They Need. British Columbia Medical Journal, 61(3), 114–124.
Abstract: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are at increased risk of developing mental health difficulties, and when neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders do co-occur, children and their families frequently face multiple barriers as they try to access services and resources. A literature review indicates that there is a lack of specialized mental health services for patients with a dual diagnosis, and the resulting inadequate level of community supports has placed the burden of care on families. Four clinical vignettes illustrate how children and their families trying to access support face barriers, including bureaucratic processes, lack of respite, out-of-home service obstacles, and limited specialized training for care providers. Policy changes are needed to ensure a wraparound approach to care based on integrative interagency and cross-agency practices.
A Longitudinal Evaluation of Wraparound’s Impact on Youth Mental Health Service Use
Citation: Cosgrove, J. A., Lee, B. R., & Unick, G. J. (2019). A Longitudinal Evaluation of Wraparound’s Impact on Youth Mental Health Service Use. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Published online: April 15, 2019.
Abstract: Wraparound is a care coordination model that has shown effectiveness for serving children and youth with significant emotional and behavioral health needs and their families. The current study evaluates a statewide wraparound demonstration with the goals of reducing the use of residential care and increasing access to outpatient mental health services among youth at risk of residential placement. More than 5 years of linked public systems data were analyzed using longitudinal panel data modeling to estimate wraparound treatment effects on service use over time. Findings show that wraparound enrollment decreased the use of residential treatment and increased the use of outpatient therapy, consistent with the goals of the demonstration. Implications are discussed for wraparound’s effectiveness as a statewide care coordination model, the importance of quality implementation of wraparound, and the current study’s methodological contributions to the wraparound literature.
Intensive community treatment and support “Youth Wraparound” service in Western Australia: A case and feasibility study
Citation: Smith, W., Sitas, M., Rao, P., Nicholls, C., McCann, P., Jonikis, T., …Waters, F. (2019). Intensive Community Treatment and Support “Youth Wraparound” Service in Western Australia: A Case and Feasibility Study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 13(1), 151–158.
Abstract: Multiple services are often needed to address the needs of young people with complex emotional or behavioural needs. The Youth Wraparound model of service aims to provide all health and supportive services from one coordinating agency. While this has been researched overseas, there are currently few examples of this described in the Australian psychiatric context. A single‐case study design is presented with an evaluation of the clinical outcome and economic costs. There were significant reductions in the number of admissions to emergency departments, mental health wards and secure units, and improvements in mental health and well‐being. Yearly average time in institutional settings reduced from 69% to 7%. Cost savings in health utilization were estimated at $2,326,790. The Youth Wraparound model has the potential to offer improved clinical outcomes, significant cost savings over time, improved coordination between care providers, and an alternative to detention or incarceration.
Facilitating a Therapeutic Environment: Creating a Therapeutic Community Using a “Wraparound” Intervention Program With At-Risk Families
[Note: Although it may not entirely reflect the NWI model of Wraparound, this article describing a program in Israel offers an interesting perspective on Wraparound.]
Citation: Mana, A., & Rosa Naveh, A. (2018). Facilitating a Therapeutic Environment: Creating a Therapeutic Community Using a “Wraparound” Intervention Program With At-Risk Families. The Family Journal, 26(3), 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480718795121
Abstract: This article will focus on how the wraparound model of intervention was applied to a treatment program for children and families at risk. The program was naturally developed during a decade of therapeutic work with families in the Center for Children and Parents in Sderot, Israel. This article illustrates the theoretical assumptions underlying the critical principle on which the wraparound intervention is based and its application to the idea of the therapeutic community as a “facilitating environment.” We will share our experiences as to how the cooperation of a therapeutic community acts as a role model and contributes to the healing of at-risk families and preventing out-of-home placement. Practical issues related to the difficulties in developing a therapeutic community, and also several “best practice strategies” for establishing a therapeutic community as a facilitating environment, will be described.
Infusing parent-child interaction therapy principles into community-based wraparound services: An evaluation of feasibility, child behavior problems, and staff sense of competence
Citation: Wallace, N.M., Quetsch, L.B., Robinson, C., McCoy, K., & McNeil, C.B. (2018). Children and Youth Services Review. 88(C), 567-581.
The current study examined the implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adapted to address problem behaviors of children (ages 2–9) through a home-based service program (i.e., wraparound). The current adaptation of PCIT was implemented by community-based wraparound clinicians and compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Results indicated a significant drop in child behavior problems for children receiving PCIT-informed services compared to TAU. In addition, PCIT-informed clinicians significantly increased their sense of competence. Feasibility and future directions regarding integration and expansion of this approach are discussed.